Jacquie MAIGNEL holds a PhD in Physiology, Physiopathology and Therapeutics and an MSC in Integrative Biology and Physiology from the Sorbonne University, Paris, France, as well as a BSc in Applied Biology from the Nottingham Trent University, UK. Physiologist with 25 years of experience in the pharmaceutical industry in running and setting up in vivo and ex vivo assays, she has been dedicating her time and efforts to develop improved therapeutic options for the patients. She explored metabolic disorders, urinary incontinence and muscle loss in her different positions. In the last 8 years, she has been focussing her investigations in toxin science at IPSEN, and the use of natural and recombinant botulinum neurotoxins as therapeutic tools, with a special interest in the applications in the urology field and the autonomic disorders. She is a member of the French Physiological Society, the French Neuroscience Society, the International Neurotoxin Association, The Society for Neuroscience and the British Pharmacological Society.