Autonomic system: In vertebrates, the district of the system that controls and regulates the inside organs with none aware recognition or effort by the organism. The involuntary system includes two antagonistic sets of nerves.
• Sympathetic system: The sympathetic system connects the inside organs to the brain by spinal nerves. Once stimulated, these nerves prepare the organism for stress by increasing the heart rate, increasing blood flow to the muscles, and decreasing blood flow to the skin.
• Parasympathetic system: The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system square measure the cranial nerves, primarily the wandering nerve, and therefore the body part spinal nerves. Once stimulated, these nerves increase biological process secretions and scale back the heartbeat.
Ø Autonomic neurology is a form of polyneuropathy that affects the non-voluntary, non-sensory nervous system, affecting mostly the internal organs such as the bladder muscles, the cardiovascular system, the digestive tract, and the genital organs. These nerves are not under a person's conscious control and function automatically.
Ø Autonomic neuropathy is one cause of malfunction of the autonomic nervous system (referred to as dysautonomia), but not the only one; some conditions affecting the brain or spinal cord also may cause autonomic dysfunction.
Autonomic Neurology focuses on clinical scenarios and presentation of clinical cases, organized into 3 sections:
· The first section reviews the anatomical and biochemical mechanisms of central and peripheral nervous system control of autonomic function, principles of autonomic pharmacology, and a clinical and laboratory approach to the diagnosis of autonomic disorders.
· The second section focuses on the pathophysiology and management of orthostatic hypotension, postural tachycardia, baroreflex failure; syncope, disorders of sweating, neurogenic bladder and sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal dysmotility, and autonomic hyperactivity.
· The final section is devoted to specific autonomic disorders, including central neurodegenerative disorders; common peripheral neuropathies with prominent autonomic failure; painful small fiber neuropathies; autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathies and neuropathies; focal brain disorders; focal spinal cord disorders; and chronic pain disorders with autonomic manifestations.