Acid-Base and Electrolytes

The renal system maintains homeostasis in the body by avoiding significant modifications in the balance of fluid electrolyte or acid–base parity until the Glomerular filtration rates are reduced to below 25 ml/min because of a series of versatile changes, both renal and extra-renal. With a dynamic decrease in renal capacity, these components are overpowered by bringing about unsettling influences in water digestion system adding to hypernatremia and hypernatremia. The modified control of sodium transport causes irritated volume status including volume over-burden and exhaustion. The rate of Hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis is more incessant in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) with GFR below 10 ml/min. This session covers Disorders of Plasma Osmolality, Electrolyte Disorders in Diabetes Mellitus, Hydration in Kidney Disease Prevention, Disturbances of Plasma Sodium Concentration, Disturbances of Plasma Potassium Concentration, Disturbances of Plasma Calcium Concentration, Physiology of Acid-Base System, Metabolic Acidosis, Respiratory Acidosis, Metabolic Alkalosis and Respiratory Alkalosis.