Nanomedicine in Theranostics and Graphene Medicine

Nanomedicines in Theranostics are advantageous over standard low-molecular-weight drugs in several different regards. They reduce renal excretion and/or hepatic degradation, leading to prolonged circulation times, reduce the volume of distribution, leading to less accumulation in healthy non-target tissues (‘site-avoidance drug delivery’), improve the ability of drugs to accumulate at pathological sites (‘site-specific drug delivery’) and improve the therapeutic index of drugs, by increasing their accumulation at the target site and/or reducing their localization in potentially endangered healthy organs. In addition, nanomedicine formulations assist low-molecular-weight (chemo-) therapeutic agents in overcoming several additional barriers to efficient drug delivery to pathological sites. We show that theranostic nanomedicines are highly suitable systems for monitoring drug delivery, drug release and drug efficacy. The (pre)clinically most relevant applications of theranostic nanomedicines relate to their use for validating and optimizing the properties of drug delivery systems, and to their ability to be used for pre-screening patients and enabling personalized medicine.

       Graphene is indeed a much-researched, heavily-hyped material, with the potential to revolutionize every aspect of our lives: from selective membranes that may solve the world’s water shortage, through replacing silicon in electronics to achieve amazing performance in miniature sizes, to enabling a multitude of next-gen energy solutions. Graphene’s compatibility with various biomedical applications, like drug delivery, cancer therapies and biosensing, is extensively and vigorously researched. The material’s unique properties, like a large surface area, good biocompatibility and chemical stability, deem it worthy of intensive examination and high hopes.·         Theranostic Targeting Vectors

·         Molecular Therapeutics

·         System Biology and Translational Medicine

·         Future Theranostic Applications

·         Innovative Applications for Diagnosis

        Prospects and Challenges of Graphene

        Applications of Graphene in Medicine

            Graphene in biosensors

            Synthesis of Graphene and 2D Materials

        Graphene based nanomaterials