Dr. Rafaat is an associate consultant (Professor) of Toxicology at the Emergency Hospital in the Faculty of Medicine at Mansoura University, Egypt. He obtained a PhD of hydrogeochemistry in 2004, at Mansoura University and previously completed an MSc in hydrogeochemistry in 2001 at the same institution. He also has a Diploma of toxicology and forensic chemistry (1996) from the Faculty of Medicine and a Diploma of applied chemistry (1993). Dr. Rafaat specializes in medical analysis, toxicology & forensic chemistry as well as water pollution. He has published papers over 10 local paper and 13 in international publications. He has spoken at 55 local conferences and workshops and 15 international meetings. He is currently a member of eight international scientific societies.