William J. Rowe M.D. FBIS (Fellow British Interplanetary Society), FACN (Fellow American College of Nutrition, Retired Fellow Royal Society of Medicine), is a board certified specialist in Internal Medicine. He received his M.D. at the University of Cincinnati and was in private practice in Toledo, Ohio for 34 years. During that time he supervised over 5000 symptom - limited maximum hospital-based treadmill stress tests. He studied 3 world class extraordinary endurance athletes and published their exercise-related magnesium deficiencies. This triggered a 20 year pursuit of the cardiovascular complications of Space flight.