The principle fuel used as a petroleum substitute is bioethanol. Bioethanol is mainly produced by the sugar fermentation process, although it can also be produced by the chemical process of reacting ethylene with steam. The main source of sugar required to produce ethanol comes from fuel or energy crops. These fuel crops are normally grown specifically for energy use and include maize, corn and wheat crops, waste straw, willow, sawdust, reed canary grass, cord grasses, Jerusalem artichoke, Myscanthus and sorghum plants. There is also ongoing research and development into the use of municipal solid wastes to produce ethanol fuel. Brazil and the United States account for over 70 percent of all ethanol production in the world today with the USA producing an estimated 6,500 Million gallons a year. Bioethanol produces only carbon dioxide and water as the waster products on burning, and the carbon dioxide released during fermentation and combustion equals the amount removed from the atmosphere while the crop is growing This fuel is not suitable for use in all cars and you should check compatibility with your vehicle manufacturer before using it. If in doubt use the standard SP95 or SP98 Octane unleaded fuel which continues to be available alongside the new fuel. Researchers have recently launched a proposal to cultivate massive amounts of seaweed or algae. They laims that the project could occupy about ten thousand kilometers of seaweed farm and they estimated that the farm would be able to produce bioethanol from algae, as much as 20 million kiloliters or 5.3 billion gallons of bioethanol per year.
§ Bioethanol production from waste vegetables
§ Bioalcohols from algae
§ Bioalcohols as automobile fuel
§ Bioalcohols from plant matter
§ Generations of bioalcohols & scope of advancement
§ Scale up on industrial level